Carbon Foot Printing

Operations at BALCO involve primary Aluminium production, which is a highly energy intensive process. Therefore, sustainable conduction of business is a high priority for BALCO Management. The objective is to quantify the GHG emissions in its day-to-day operations, in order to help in identifying improvement areas and access its environmental performance against key performance indicators. The programme would also help to plan and implement measures to further reduce the specific emission rate of GHGs from its operations.

Key emission sources are:
  • BALCO has coal based captive power generation units with installed capacity of 810 MW. The Power Plants fire fossil fuels like LDO, HFO and coal for generation of power. Direct emissions due to fossil fuel consumption at the captive generation units comprise around 88% of the direct emissions of BALCO.
  • The primary Aluminium production at BALCO involves application of GAMI (Pre-Bake) Technology. This technology is more energy efficient as compared to VSS. The emission intensity is around 2.03 tCO2e/tonne of Aluminium. Process emissions during the primary Aluminium production constitute around 6.5% of the direct emissions of BALCO. BALCO has undertaken a CDM project to change over from VSS to prebake technology.


The Carbon footprint calculation follows the principles and methods of the latest version of the Greenhouse Gas Protocol. The GHG Protocol is the most widely used international accounting tool to understand, quantify and manage greenhouse gas emissions. The GHG Protocol was developed by the World Resources Institute and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development. The objective of this standard is the international harmonisation of the calculation of GHG emissions used by companies and organisations and the reassurance of a consistent collection of data within the different emissions trading systems and climate initiatives. The GHG Protocol is based on the following principles of calculation of emissions:

  • 1. Relevance : Ensure the GHG inventory appropriately captures and reflects the GHG emissions of the Company.
  • 2. Completeness : Account for and report on all GHG emission sources and activities within the chosen inventory boundary. Disclose and justify any specific exclusion.
  • 3. Consistency : Use consistent methodologies to allow for meaningful comparisons of emissions over time. Transparently document any changes to the data, inventory boundary and methods in the time series.
  • 4. Transparency : Address all relevant issues in a factual and coherent manner, based on a clear audit trail. Disclose any relevant assumptions and make appropriate references to the accounting and calculation methodologies and data sources used.
  • 5. Accuracy : Ensure that the quantification of GHG emissions is systematically neither over nor under actual emissions, and that uncertainties are reduced as far as practicable.